Journal of Bhutan Studies Volume 21, Winter 2009

1. A Brief Account of Namkhai Nyinpo and his reincarnations by Sangay Wangdi

The present Namkhai Nyingpo po, the 7th reincarnation Jigme Thinley Namgyal was born in eastern Bhutan in 1966 at Tongshong to Tshering Gyaltshen and Sherabmo, the wisdom Dakini. At the time of his birth, many wonderful signs appeared. The rainbow appeared over the valley in the sunshine and the drinking water turned into white milk. The first word the child spoke was “Kharchu, Kharchu”. He could remember his past lives clearly and he even vividly recognized his previous disciples. Through his pure wisdom vision, the 16th Karmapa Rigpai Dorji impeccably recognized the boy as the legitimate reincarnation of Namkhai Nyingpo.

2. Dangphu Dingphu: The Origin of the Bhutanese Folktales by Dorji Penjore

Bhutan is no more an oral society and its store of oral tradition is depleting fast due to rapid social transformation and proliferation of mass media and modern communication system. There is little government or public effort to study, archive, translate, teach and use folktales. This paper makes a review of the Bhutanese oral tradition and discuses the origins of the Bhutanese folktales in light of major folklore theories. It attempts to promote better appreciation of the Bhutanese folktales through the study of their types, characters, themes, and narrative structure. It ends with a short discussion on its functions, primarily its role in educating children.

3. Intellectual Property, Access to Medicines and Public Health Issues in Bhutan by Kencho Palden

The effects of the trade liberalisation process has been felt in Bhutan; even though it is a developing country and one of the smallest markets in the world it has not been able to escape from the inevitable. This is evident from the accession process to the World Trade Organization, which is at an advanced stage. One important key factor in being compliant with the WTO is meeting the minimum standards of Trade-Related Aspects of the Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. Multiple challenges exist in implementing the standards of the TRIPS Agreement. It has been argued that the effects of WTO- TRIPS compliance will be detrimental to Bhutan’s free health care policy, particularly access to medicines in the light of a lack of pharmaceutical industry and manufacturing capacity. The present legislation on intellectual property in Bhutan lacks necessary safeguards and flexibilities in the public health arena; these safeguards are present within the TRIPS Agreement and that is further amplified by the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health.