1. Stock Market Finance and Gross National Happiness: An Institutional Fit? Evidence from Bhutan by Bruce Hearn & Michael Givel
This paper studies the institutional fit and the appropriateness of neoclassical stock market institutions within the context of Buddhist informal institutions in the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan. This is particularly timely given the considerable media interest in the principles of Gross National Happiness (GNH) as an alternative series of measures relating to economic growth and development. Our findings reveal that while conventional development policy supporting stock market and banking system financial systems is not counter to the principles embodied in GNH the central government may be better in administering finance owing to a general apathy towards formal neoclassical institutions by the population owing to the dominance and pervasive strength of the Buddhist monastic traditions and culture in Bhutan.
2. Coinage in Bhutan During the 19th and 20th Centuries by Ratna Sarkara and Indrajit Ray
One of the principal objectives of this paper is to examine the degree of monetisation in the Bhutanese economy from the early period to the first quarter of the 20th Century. Section I narrates this development. Section II explains the types of coins struck in Bhutan during the 18th-19th Centuries. Section III deals with the types of coins that were used during the reign of Ugyen Wangchuck. This Section also seeks to estimate the addition of money in circulation during this period. Major findings of the study are summarised by way of conclusions in section IV.
3. Attitude of Nurses towards Mental Illness in Bhutan by Rinchen Pelzang
This paper explores the general nurses’ attitudes towards mental illness in Bhutan. A non-probability convenience sample with quantitative descriptive method was used. The sample represents the known population of nurses from National Referral Hospital (JDWNR Hospital), Thimphu. Overall, the findings indicated that the nurses surveyed have a positive attitude towards mental illness (mean – 134.39, SD – 17.35). Findings from this study shows that the nurses with psychiatric experience of 3-4 weeks and 4 weeks respectively were found to have more positive attitude towards mental illness indicating that the clinical placement of nurses in psychiatric unit improves attitudes towards mental illness.
The purpose of the study is to explore the demand and extent of religious rituals performed by patients and families during illness and hospitalization in Bhutan. The study has used a convenience sample with quantitative method. The survey questionnaire was administered to a total of 106 patients and families who were admitted to the hospital at least for three days. Simple frequency count and percentages were used to interpret the findings of the study.