1. The Herdsmen’s Dilemma by Karma ura
Migratory herding is still an important part of the livelihood of a significant section of the Bhutanese people; but it was central to our traditional pastoral economy. Cattle, grazing land, labour and cultivatable land were the four primary sources of wealth in the past. A balance among these four factors of production had to be struck for the agrarian society to be sustained. Obviously, the area of grazing land, and the number of cattle depended on it, could not have been so large as it was if forests were allowed to grow with rampant vigour, as we do now.
2. Grazing Management of Temperate Grassland and Fallows by Walter Roder
The paper provides a general overview of fodder resources and their management in temperate Bhutan (altitude range of 1500-3000m). The terms are used as defined by RC-Jakar (RNR-RC-Jakar, 1996). As per these definitions, temperate pasture can include any kind of land used for grazing. When referring to registered grassland or tsamdro, only the term tsamdrog is used. Where possible, the term pasture is replaced with more specific or more appropriate terms.
Grazing by livestock has been an important issue for the management of the national parks and protected areas. Generally, it has been observed that grazing has negative impact on the ecological stability of the grazing area, albeit at varying levels. This impact results primarily from two sources- browsing of the ground flora and erosion as a result of hove marks. Several studies have been carried out to assess the impact of grazing on the resiliency of the eco- system. While most studies have revealed that there is a negative impact on the eco-system, the issue of separating it from the resource use patterns of the rural households and communities has been difficult to reconcile.
4. Condition and Potential for Improvement of High Altitude Rangelands by Pema Gyamtsho
This paper is an extract from the Ph.D. thesis of the author “Assessment of the Condition and Potential for Improvement of the High Altitude Rangelands of Bhutan”. It deals with the factors influencing the degradation of rangelands in the high altitude areas of the northwest Bhutan, and proposes possible legal and technological measures to improve rangeland conditions.
5. Grazing Management in Broadleaf Forests by Lungten Norbu
This paper aims to document the current situation of broadleaf forest management, and assess THE impact of cattle grazing on broadleaf forests around Gedu, a typical broadleaf forest where grazing and wood production are practiced. An attempt is also made to propose an adapted forest management planning system that would enhance the co-existence of cattle grazing and wood production, along with other forest functions in broadleaf forests.