Journal of Bhutan Studies Volume 8, Summer 2003

1. The Founding of Dungsam Yongla Riwo Pelbar Dargye Chholing and the List of Successive Lamas by Her Majesty The Queen Mother of Bhutan, Ashi Kesang Choden Wangchuck

In a vision, the great Treasure Discoverer Rigzin Jigme Lingpa, the eminent disciple of the greatest treasure discoverer Kunkhen Longchen Ramjam, saw distinctive places like Tsarita, Singye Dzong etc, from among which an abode of holy Vajra similar to the stature of the above places came in his vision. This particular place had the fullest details of the impressions of the Vajra indicative of wrath and it bore the quality of resistance against war along the Indo- Bhutan borders.

2. The First Meeting of the King Ugyen Wangchuck with Raja Ugyen Dorji in Kurjey Lhakhang by Her Majesty The Queen Mother of BHutan, Ashi Kesang Choden Wangchuck

The Lord (King Ugyen Wangchuck) had himself taken on his shoulders the activities that would benefit the Tenpa (Buddha’s doctrine). The Lord had submitted frequent letters to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama- Tibetan Government’s precious jewel of the monastic communities and public- that there was no need to proceed to other neighboring countries. The Lord had given personal assurance in an important message that even if the external aggressors reach the centre of the country (Tibet), the Chamgoen Rinpoche will not be harmed.

3. The Tradition of Betel and Areca in Bhutan by Françoise POMMARET

Doma zhes is one of the most heard and widespread phrases in Bhutan: ” Please have betel leaf and areca nut” becomes a leitmotif each time two individuals meet, at the end of a meal, and in all the occasions of everyday life. It is impossible not to notice the importance that the betel leaf and nut holds in Bhutan.

4. A Language for Rules, Another for Symbols: Linguistic Pluralism and Interpretation of Statutes in the Kingdom of Bhutan by Alessandro Simoni

From being almost completely unknown to the average Westerner, the Kingdom of Bhutan has recently become a fashionable destination for elite tourism. This small Himalayan state with a population of about 600 000, landlocked between India and China, has a lot to give to those willing to pay the tax imposed by the government on leisure trips to the country, which offers unparalleled natural landscape, magnificent Buddhist temples and a fascinating cultural heritage.

5. A Provisional Physiographic Zonation of Bhutan by Chencho Norbu et al.

The Royal Government stresses the concepts of environmental stewardship, responsibility to future generations and good husbandry in the development of Bhutan’s natural resources. Sustainable development along these lines depends largely on willing and informed participation by the field managers of the resources, i.e. the farmers, foresters, pastoralists, mine mangers and other rural people. These managers already have considerable indigenous knowledge relating to the use of their land. However their efforts can be augmented by technical improvements based on modern research, surveys, and other studies. It is one of the roles of the scientific community to provide the information necessary for such improvements.

6. Types of Land Degradation in Bhutan by Chencho Norbu et al.

There is a growing global awareness that land degradation is as much a threat to environmental well–being as more obvious forms of damage, such as air and water pollution (e.g. Greenland & Szalbocs, 1994; Conacher, 2001). Although the source of land degradation is usually local, its effects often stretch for considerable distances from the source site. It can impact large areas and many people. Governments, NGO’s and community groups therefore have the right and duty to be concerned, and to intervene and assist where needed.

7. An Analysis of Pegged Exchange Rate Between Bhutan and India by Karma Galey

This paper analyzes the applicability of the theory of optimum currency area to the pegged exchange rate regime between Bhutan and India. Most of the optimum currency criteria hold true for Bhutan and India. The paper then analyzes the implications of establishing a free-floating exchange rate. It outlines the negative consequences and concludes that the present system is optimal. Any attempt to deviate from it will cause economic uncertainties.