Journal of Bhutan Studies Volume 27, Winter 2012

1. Massive Rice Offering in Wangdiphodrang in Zhabdrung Rinpoche’s Time by Dasho Karma Ura

This article analyses a newly discovered book of 1679, perhaps the oldest extant land record, which shows that there was a survey of taxable fields and taxable houses of Wangdi district (Shar mTsho brGyad kyi khral Zhing khral Khyim gyi Deb gTer) to collect rice taxes as fresh-harvest offering for blessing tithes (dbang yon thog phud).

2. GNH, EI and the well-being of Nations: Lessons for public policy makers, with specific reference to the happiness dividend of tourism by Dr Shaun Vorster

This paper has two objectives: firstly, to conceptually explore the theoretical underpinnings of GNH and how it relates to societal EI and, secondly, to evaluate within this theoretical context the happiness dividend of the tourism economy, with specific reference to ethics, the labour market and environmental sustainability. As such the paper responds to a question posed by Goleman (2008): “Can there be an emotionally intelligent society?”

3. The ethics platform in tourism research: A Western Australian perspective of Bhutan’s GNH Tourism Model by Simon Teoh

This paper examines Bhutan’s unique development model based on a philosophy called Gross National Happiness (GNH) through tourism. The discussion is framed by Macbeth’s (2005) ethics platform in tourism research. The purpose of the paper is to investigate and understand a group of Western Australians’ perspective of Bhutan as a valued tourist destination and the likelihood of participants visiting Bhutan after understanding the GNH tourism model at a live display of Bhutanese culture.

4. In-service Training: Key to Enhancing Competence and Building Confidence for Job Performance of Gewog-level Extension Agents in Bhutan by Dr Samdrup Rigyal

It is about the study undertaken to measure the confidence levels of the extension agents (EAs) under the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests based in the gewogs for efficient job performance by identifying their perceptions on the various competencies. It showed that most of the competencies EAs considered important were also possessed by them and vice versa. However, the competencies considered important that were least possessed by EAs were particularly in vital areas, including technical knowledge and skill oriented competencies. The study indicated that EAs needed some form of training in all the 40 competencies of extension knowledge, skills and qualities measured. The technical knowledge competency stood out as the most important training need.

Journal of Bhutan Studies Volume 26, Summer 2012

1. Ladakhi and Bhutanese Enclaves in Tibet by John Bray

This paper is a preliminary discussion of the ambiguities surrounding the enclaves. It begins with an analysis of their common origins in the 17th century, and then discusses the disputes surrounding them in the 20th century, making particular reference to British records.1 The paper concludes with a discussion of the enclaves’ standing in the wider context of traditional and contemporary Himalayan politics.

2. Population History and Identity in the Hidden Land of Pemakö by Kerstin Grothmann

This study explores the history of migration by different Buddhist peoples from eastern Bhutan, the neighbouring Tawang area and the Tibetan plateau to the ‘hidden land’ (Tib. sbas yul) of Pemakö, and the circumstances that induced migrants to leave their homelands.

3. Under the Influence of Buddhism: The Psychological Well- being Indicators of GNH by Tashi Wangmo & John Valk

This article tries to see whether the indicators of GNH reflect the Buddhist principles or not, first by looking at some key foundational doctrines of Buddhism which might lie behind the GNH index and indicators: the Four Noble Truths, Karma, and the six perfections or paramitas to highlight Mahayana Buddhist principles of happiness and second by focussing on psychological well-being, one of the nine domains of GNH.

4. Culture, Public Policy and Happiness by Sangay Chophel

This paper explores the relationship between culture and happiness by analysing work from different disciplines as a way of shedding useful insight on policy issue. It discusses the role of public policy in furthering happiness. In addition, this paper discusses contemporary literature on identity, values, diversity, and public policy in relation to happiness and well- being, and corroborates some of the claims made in this paper by using the data from Gross National Happiness survey conducted in 2010 wherever it is applicable and warranted.

5. Trend of Bhutan’s Trade during 1907-26: Export by Ratna Sarkar & Indrajit Ray

This paper analyses the trend of merchandise export of Bhutan to British India during the reign of King Ugyen Wangchuck,  explains the destination of export trade of Bhutan and makes an attempt to analyse the composition of exports.

Journal of Bhutan Studies Volume 25, Winter 2011

1. A Zhabdrung Phunsum Tshogpa (zhabs drung phun sum tshogs pa) Thangka from the National Museum of Bhutan Collection by Ariana Maki

This paper presents recent research on one thangka from the museum collection depicting the theme of Zhabdrung Phunsum Tshogpa (zhabs drung phun sum tshogs pa), or ‘submitting [oneself] to the one with perfect qualities’. The composition converges around the 17th century religious and political master, Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (zhabs drung ngag dbang rnam rgyal, 1594-1651).

2. Meme Lama Sonam Zangpo’s Kurseong Years: A Note on Factors in the Foundation of a Modern Bhutanese Religious Community outside of Bhutan by Amy Holmes-Tagchungdarpa

This paper is a brief attempt to fill in this period of Lama Sonam Zangpo’s life, and to provide an exploration of some of the factors that influence the development of religious communities.

3. From Mount Tsari to the tsechu: Bhutan’s Sacred Song and Lute Dance by Elaine Dobson

This article examines the dramnyen cham (Tib. sgra snyan ‘cham), a sacred dance which is led by a dramnyen player, and the choeshay, a religious song also accompanied with dance, and it explores their connection with the founding and spread of the Drukpa (dragon) Kagyu branch of Vajrayana Buddhism in Bhutan.

4. Invoking a Warrior Deity: A Preliminary Study of Lo-ju by Dendup Chophel

The article is based on manuscript of the rituals, hagiography of eminent Drukpa (‘brug pa) hierarchs and other socio- political publications though none of them directly relate to the actual rationale and period of the festival’s institution. So, this work is primarily a heuristic recreation of the festival based on stray references found in these sources that are appropriately corroborated with existing myths, legends and other grapevines.

Journal of Bhutan Studies Volume 24, Summer 2011

1. Rows of Auspicious Seats by Dorji Penjore

This paper analyses centuries-old Bhutanese ritual, bzhugs gral phun sum tshogs pa’i rten ‘brel. Literally translated as ‘auspicious seating row’, its performance is believed to bring auspiciousness, and as such any significant public function in Bhutan compulsorily begins with performance of this ritual. That the ritual brings auspiciousness is ingrained in the Bhutanese psyche.

2. Chibdral: A Traditional Bhutanese Welcome Ceremony by Karma Rigzin

Chibdral, the focus of this paper, is a ceremonial procession of men and horses. ‘Chib’ refers to the horse that leads the procession and ‘Dral’ means “uniform line”. With a history believed to stretch back to the time of the Buddha, chibdral continues to be one of the most important and most frequently performed ceremonies in modern Bhutan.

3. The Sacred Dance of Peling Ging Sum by Khenpo Phuntsok Tashi

This paper explores the Peling Ging Sum, established in the 15th century by one of the most significant treasure revealers (terton) in the Vajrayana Buddhist history, Pema Lingpa (1450-1521). Meaning The Three Wrathful Deities of Pema Lingpa and also known as Peling Tercham, it consists of three parts: first, the stick dance (juging) which locates and points out the adversary; second, the sword dance (driging) to conquer and destroy it; and third, the drum dance (ngaging) celebrates victory over the adversary.

4. Hen Kha: A Dialect of Mangde Valley in Bhutan by Jagar Dorji

his paper presents research on Hen Kha, a dialect of the Mangde region found in the central district of Trongsa. As dialects around the world are perishing at an alarming rate, there is a deep concern about the future of Hen Kha and the other dialects of Bhutan whose presence helps reveal the cultural diversity of the country. The present analysis explores the effects of modernisation and urban migration on local vernacular, as well as the grass root efforts to conserve such languages, such as communities that are actively cultivating programming in the local dialect. Fortunately, there is still time for Bhutan to actively preserve such dialects so that they do not disappear into oblivion.

Journal of Bhutan Studies Volume 23, Winter 2010

1. Sounds of Sokshing: Revisiting the Contested Provisions of the Land Act 2007 by Dr Sonam Kinga

This is a preliminary discussion paper that could help inform debates in Parliament and in the society. It will seek to elaborate issues concerning sokshing although some arguments would equally apply for tsamdro rights. It will highlight problems of enforcing the provision of the Land Act concerning sokshing and provide recommendations for possible consideration in addressing the issue.

2. The Use of Qualitative and Ethnographic Research to Enhance the Measurement and Operationalisation of Gross National Happiness by Nicole I.J. Hoellere

This paper aims to introduce ethnographic and qualitative research as a valuable addition to previous quantitative surveys in order to measure, test and operationalise Gross National Happiness in the Kingdom of Bhutan. Ethnographic research and anthropological theory can reveal valuable insights into everyday practices and experiences of and with GNH and GNH-related policies on the ground level.

3. To Join or Not to Join WTO: A Study on its Negative Impacts by Karma Wangdi

Membership of the WTO allows for better market access, a level playing field, policy reforms, access to justice and technical assistance. However, empirical evidence suggests some members have benefited more than others. Besides, small countries face difficulties in meeting the cost of the WTO compliance, in addition to the loss of policy autonomy, because policies have to be aligned to that of the WTO. In this relation, this report mainly discusses issues related to GATT and GATS. It will also briefly discuss DSU and SPS.

4. In with the Bad: Ambient Air Quality and Tranboundary Pollution in Bhutan by Linda Pannozzo

Bhutan is extraordinary and unique, but also incredibly vulnerable. In fact, it has fallen victim to some of the worst consequences of industrialization-gone- mad in the rest of the world. For one, although its contribution to the global climate crisis is negligible at best, Bhutan is considered to be highly vulnerable to its effects — both in terms of human health impacts and in terms of weather-related disasters.

Journal of Bhutan Studies Volume 22, Summer 2010

1. Stock Market Finance and Gross National Happiness: An Institutional Fit? Evidence from Bhutan by Bruce Hearn & Michael Givel

This paper studies the institutional fit and the appropriateness of neoclassical stock market institutions within the context of Buddhist informal institutions in the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan. This is particularly timely given the considerable media interest in the principles of Gross National Happiness (GNH) as an alternative series of measures relating to economic growth and development. Our findings reveal that while conventional development policy supporting stock market and banking system financial systems is not counter to the principles embodied in GNH the central government may be better in administering finance owing to a general apathy towards formal neoclassical institutions by the population owing to the dominance and pervasive strength of the Buddhist monastic traditions and culture in Bhutan.

2. Coinage in Bhutan During the 19th and 20th Centuries by Ratna Sarkara and Indrajit Ray

One of the principal objectives of this paper is to examine the degree of monetisation in the Bhutanese economy from the early period to the first quarter of the 20th Century. Section I narrates this development. Section II explains the types of coins struck in Bhutan during the 18th-19th Centuries. Section III deals with the types of coins that were used during the reign of Ugyen Wangchuck. This Section also seeks to estimate the addition of money in circulation during this period. Major findings of the study are summarised by way of conclusions in section IV.

3. Attitude of Nurses towards Mental Illness in Bhutan by Rinchen Pelzang

This paper explores the general nurses’ attitudes towards mental illness in Bhutan. A non-probability convenience sample with quantitative descriptive method was used. The sample represents the known population of nurses from National Referral Hospital (JDWNR Hospital), Thimphu. Overall, the findings indicated that the nurses surveyed have a positive attitude towards mental illness (mean – 134.39, SD – 17.35). Findings from this study shows that the nurses with psychiatric experience of 3-4 weeks and 4 weeks respectively were found to have more positive attitude towards mental illness indicating that the clinical placement of nurses in psychiatric unit improves attitudes towards mental illness.

4. Religious Practice of the Patients and Families during Illness and Hospitalization in Bhutan by Rinchen Pelzang

The purpose of the study is to explore the demand and extent of religious rituals performed by patients and families during illness and hospitalization in Bhutan. The study has used a convenience sample with quantitative method. The survey questionnaire was administered to a total of 106 patients and families who were admitted to the hospital at least for three days. Simple frequency count and percentages were used to interpret the findings of the study.


Journal of Bhutan Studies Volume 21, Winter 2009

1. A Brief Account of Namkhai Nyinpo and his reincarnations by Sangay Wangdi

The present Namkhai Nyingpo po, the 7th reincarnation Jigme Thinley Namgyal was born in eastern Bhutan in 1966 at Tongshong to Tshering Gyaltshen and Sherabmo, the wisdom Dakini. At the time of his birth, many wonderful signs appeared. The rainbow appeared over the valley in the sunshine and the drinking water turned into white milk. The first word the child spoke was “Kharchu, Kharchu”. He could remember his past lives clearly and he even vividly recognized his previous disciples. Through his pure wisdom vision, the 16th Karmapa Rigpai Dorji impeccably recognized the boy as the legitimate reincarnation of Namkhai Nyingpo.

2. Dangphu Dingphu: The Origin of the Bhutanese Folktales by Dorji Penjore

Bhutan is no more an oral society and its store of oral tradition is depleting fast due to rapid social transformation and proliferation of mass media and modern communication system. There is little government or public effort to study, archive, translate, teach and use folktales. This paper makes a review of the Bhutanese oral tradition and discuses the origins of the Bhutanese folktales in light of major folklore theories. It attempts to promote better appreciation of the Bhutanese folktales through the study of their types, characters, themes, and narrative structure. It ends with a short discussion on its functions, primarily its role in educating children.

3. Intellectual Property, Access to Medicines and Public Health Issues in Bhutan by Kencho Palden

The effects of the trade liberalisation process has been felt in Bhutan; even though it is a developing country and one of the smallest markets in the world it has not been able to escape from the inevitable. This is evident from the accession process to the World Trade Organization, which is at an advanced stage. One important key factor in being compliant with the WTO is meeting the minimum standards of Trade-Related Aspects of the Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. Multiple challenges exist in implementing the standards of the TRIPS Agreement. It has been argued that the effects of WTO- TRIPS compliance will be detrimental to Bhutan’s free health care policy, particularly access to medicines in the light of a lack of pharmaceutical industry and manufacturing capacity. The present legislation on intellectual property in Bhutan lacks necessary safeguards and flexibilities in the public health arena; these safeguards are present within the TRIPS Agreement and that is further amplified by the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health.

Beyond the Ballot Box

Beyond the Ballot Box 

Report from the Deepening and Sustaining Democracy in Asia Conference, 11-14 October 2009

This publication is the proceedings of the conference on Deepening and Sustaining Democracy organised by the Royal Government of Bhutan, the Centre for Bhutan Studies and the United Nations Development Programme. The inspiration for this Conference emerged from discussions between the Hon’ble Prime Minister lyonchhen Jigmi Y Thinley and Mr Ajay Chhibber, United Nations Assistant Secretary General and UNDP Regional Director for Asia and Pacific. The conference was held not only to mark the smooth and peaceful democratic transition of Bhutan in 2008, but also as a platform to share lessons and experiences among countries in the region to help strengthen, deepen and sustain the democratic culture and values in Asia.

Cabinet Ministers and Members of Parliament from 13 countries representing South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) groups as well as others, participated in the Conference. Representatives of non-governmental and civil society organisations from a number of Asian countries, United Nations and international organisations representatives attended alongside regional journalists and Bhutanese participants. Fifteen internationally acclaimed scholars and experts on democracy presented papers and animated the discussions on a range of topics. Specifically, these were:

Foundations of Democracy Experiences in Democracy Civic Rights and Participation Elections and Justice Accountability and Freedom

These topics provided the opportunity to focus on the basic guiding principles of democracy – freedom of expression, equal access to justice, and that each country should develop its own tools and mechanisms to put these principles into action. The publication can be downloaded by different chapters from the following:



Page No.

vi. Title and contents vii
ii. Foreword and acknowledgements vii
iii. Introduction x
iv. Opening Remarks Dasho Karma Ura xxi
v. Keynote Address Mr Ajay Chhibber 1
vi. Keynote Address HE Jigmi Y Thinley, Prime Minister of Bhutan 10

I. Foundations of Democracy

1. Public Opinion, Happiness, and the Will of the People: Policy-making in a Democracy

Dr Henry S Richardson 25

2. Democracy and Difference: Going beyond Liberal Freedoms and Illiberal Order

Dr Peter Hershock 60
3. Constitutional Values and Rule of Law Geraldine Fraser-Moleketi 101

II. Experiences in Democracy

4. Democracy in the Non-West: Facts, Fictions and Frictions

Dr Nitasha Kaul 115

5. Constitution – the King’s Gift: Defiling and Sanctifying a Sacred Gift

Dasho Sonam Kinga 134
6. Experience of Indian Democracy Pavan K Varma 181
7. Grass Roots Democracy and Decentralisation Dr George Mathew 189

III. Civic Rights and Participation

8. Women’s Role in Politics – Quantity and Quality Sultana Kamal 209
9. Civil liberties and Security Anthony Grayling 229
10. Citizen’s Assessment of Parliaments Performance Ahmed Mehboob 237

IV. Election and Justice

11. The Majority Judgement: A New Mechanism for Electing and Ranking Professor Michel Balinski 257
12. Happiness and Punishment John Bronsteen 269

V. Accountability and Freedom

13. Voice, Accountability and Freedom Dr Sabina Marie Alkire 292
14. Concluding Remarks HE Jigmi Y Thinley 320
15. Biographies   373

First Published: 2010

ISBN 978-99936-14-61-6

© The Centre for Bhutan Studies

Gross National Happiness: Practice and Measurement


Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Gross National Happiness

Edited by Dasho Karma Ura and Dorji Penjore

This publication is the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Gross National Happiness held in Thimphu, Bhutan, from 24 to 26 November 2008, against the backdrop of the global financial crisis. The conference which attracted 90 participants from 25 countries and five continents was attended by an average of 300 participants and observers. With the theme ‘Practice and Measurement’, the conference could not be held at a better place and time than Bhutan, the birthplace of GNH, and a time when the world is questioning the conventional growth model and its measurement system.

A total of 48 papers were presented. Almost all papers have been categorised to fit into one of the nine domains of Gross National Happiness: i. Psychological Wellbeing; ii. Time Use and Balance; iii. Cultural Diversity and Resilience; iv. Community Vitality; v. Ecological Diversity and Resilience; vi. Good Governance; vii. Health; viii. Education; and ix. Living Standard. Papers related to measuring progress and development of alternative measure of wellbeing (Measurement), and those related to carrying the GNH forward into global network and development of innovative ideas for implementing GNH (The Way Forward) constitute two separate parts.

The book is uploaded by chapters for easier and quicker download. The articles will begin downloading when you click on the title of the articles that you want.


Sl.No. Content Author

Page no.

0 Cover and Copyright page  
0 Introduction


1 Keynote Address His Excellency Jigmi Y Thinley, Hon’ble Prime Minister of Bhutan


2 Remarks Nicholas Rossellini, Resident Coordinator of UN System in Bhutan


3 Measuring Progress Towards GNH: From GNH Indicators to GNH National Accounts? Ronald Colman


4 The Analysis of Results of Research into ‘The Ideal Society’ in Japan, Sweden and Bhutan – Using the Indicators of Human Satisfaction Measure Terue Ohashi


5 The Global Project on Measuring the Progress of Societies: A global movement for a global challenge Jon Hall


6 Creating National Accounts of Wellbeing; a parallel process to GNH Nic Marks


Psychological Wellbeing
 7 Can We Have Both Psychological and Ecological Wellbeing George Burns


8 The Nature-Nurture Debate: New Evidence and Good News Ragnhild Bang Nes


Time Use
9 Time use and Happiness Karma Galay


10 Internalizing the Other–Cross Cultural Understanding in Arts and Education Sharon Lowen


11 Role of meditation in promoting happiness Khenpo Phuntsho Tashi


12 The Semantic Structure of Gross National Happiness: A View From Conceptual Metaphor Theory Carl Polley


Community Vitality
13 Development and (Un)happiness: A case Study from Rural Ethiopia Dena Freeman


14 Religious Institution Based Community-hood and Identity of a ‘Muslim Community’ in a ‘Remote’ Rural Village in Bangladesh Mohammed Kamruzzaman


15 To Think Like an Island: Three-Capital Model in Pursuing GNH in Taiwan Juju Chin Shou Wang


Ecological Diversity and Resilience
16 Institutional Challenges to ‘Patience’ in the Collective Management of Public Goods Ram Fishman


17 Status Symbols, Ecosystems and Sustainability Arthur Fishman


Good Governance
18 Good Organizational Practice and GNH: A Proposal for Organizational Performance Indicators Anne-Marie Schreven


19 Between Earth and Sky: Formal Organizations as Instrument in Creating GNH John Nirenberg


20 Do Information and Communication Technologies Further or Hinder Gross National Happiness? Jason Whalley and Kezang


21 ICT Key Role in the Economic Development of Haiti: Lessons from Pilot Projects in Rural Haiti and Associated Directions of Contribution to the GNH Index Serge MirandaFrantz Verella, and Tahar Saiah


22 A Paradigm Shift in Health Care to Increase GNH Dr Chencho Dorji


23 Nature- Deficit Disorder and the Spirit of Wilderness Dave Augeri


24 Dynamic Aging Ethel Lowen


25 Western Education, Socialization and Individualism Andrie Kusserow


26 Gross National Happiness in the Classroom – A Teacher’s Thoughts Meena Srinivasan


27 Conceptualising Education for Constitutional Monarchy System: Meiji Japan’s View and Approach Masanori Kakutani


28 Schools in Rural Areas and GNH: Endogenous Actions of Small Communities in Japan and Sweden Michiyo Okuma Nystrom


Living Standard
29 Shift in the Measure of Quality of Life viz-a-viz Happiness – A Study of Phongmey Gewog and Trashigang Town in Eastern Bhutan Vijay Shrotryia


30 Japan’s Paradigm Shift from Growth to Happiness: Slowing Down to Advance Wellbeing Junko Edahiro and Riichiro Oda


31 Food Security and Gross National Happiness Akiko Ueda


32 Optimal Condition of Happiness: Application of Taguchi Robust Parameter Design on Evidences from India Prabhat Pankaj and Deobra


GNH – The Way Forward
33 The Future of Happiness as a National Pursuit Ross MacDonald


34 Critical Holism: A New Development Paradigm Inspired by Gross National Happiness? Hans van Willenswaard


35 GNH: Changing Views, a Label for Quality Information Nille van Hellemont


Contributor’s biography


Towards Global Transformation


Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Gross National Happiness

This book is a compilation of the papers presented at the Third International Conference on Gross National Happiness held from 22 to 28 November 2007 in Thailand. It was attended by about six hundred participants from academia, NGOs, governments, media, and religious institutions. The Centre would like to thank both the national and international participants for their papers submitted to the conference and helping in further expanding the concept of Gross National Happiness as well as for helping to take steps towards grounding the concept into practice. Only a select few papers are included in this volume due to lack of space.

 Sl. No.  Title  Author Page. No. 
 1  Cover Page and Acknowledgements    vii
 2  Activating Difference: Appreciating Equity in an Era of Global Interdependence  Peter D. Herschock  1
 3  Pretty Woman  Dasho Kinley Dorji  10
 4  Happiness and Spirituality Gem Dorji  26
 5  Reciprocal Exchange and Community Vitality: The Case of Gortshom Village in Eastern Bhutan  Sonam Kinga  31
 6 Is National Environment Conservation Success a Rural Failure? The Other Side of Bhutan’s Conservation Story   Dorji Penjore  66
7  Opening the Gates in Bhutan: Media Gatekeepers and the Agenda of Change  Siok Sian Pek-Dorji  88
 8  Conglomerate Radar of Happiness in Bhutan  Prabhat K Pankaj  110
 9  A case story from Minamata: GNH Practice as Human Security and Sustainable Development  Takayoshi Kusago  130
 10  The Suicide Priests of Japan and the Search for Gross National Happiness  Jonathan Watts  135
 11  Gross National Happiness: A New Paradigm  Chandima D. Daskon  167
 12 Beyond the Linear Logic of Project Aid Alternative: Understandings of Participation and Community Vitality  Amanda Kiessel  183
 13  Creating Vibrant Communities through Ecologically Sound Food Production  Alex Kaufman  199
 14  Happiness Under Pressure: How Dual-Earner Parents Experience Time in Australia  Peter Brown, Ester Cerin & Penny Warner-Smith 213
 15 P2P and Human Happiness   Michel Bauwens 233
 16  Micro-finance in Improvement of Living Standard and GNH   Saugata Bandyoupadhayay 248
 17  Micro-finance Institution, Social Capital and Peace Building: Evidence from West Kalimantan, Indonesia Rochman Achwan  272
 18  Interpreting Right Livelihood: Understanding and Practice in Contemporary Thailand  Nissara Horayangura  282
 19  A Tale of Two Samut Cities: Different Paths to Devleopment and People’s Wellbeing in Samut Sakorn and Samut Songkram Provinces  Decharut Sukkumnoed and Wipawa Chuenchit  300
 20 The Development of Thai Mental Health Indicator: From Past to Present   Apichai Mongkol, Tavee Tangseree, Pichet Udomratn, Watchanee Huttapanom & Worawan Chutha  315
21  The Concept of Happiness: The Bridge between Western and Eastern Thought, and Empirical Evidence of Bangkokian’s Happiness Determinants  Kanokporn Nitnitiphrut  326
 22  Macroeconomic Determinants of the Happiness of the Poor: A Case Study of Pakistan  Muhammad Shahbaz & Naveed Aamir  367

First Published: 2008
ISBN 99936-14-42-4
© The Centre for Bhutan Studies